Story, by Robert McKee
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- An archetypal story creates settings and characters so rare that our
eyes feast on every detail, while its telling illuminates conflicts so
true to humankind that it journeys from culture to culture.
- First, the discovery of a world we do not know. No matter how intimate
or epic, contemporary or historical, concrete or fantasized, the world of
an eminent artist always strikes us as somewhat exotic or strange. Like
an explorer parting forest leaves, we step wide-eyed into an untouched
society, a cliché-free zone where the ordinary becomes extraordinary.
- Second, once inside this alien world, we find ourselves. Deep within
these characters and their conflicts we discover our own humanity. We go
to the movies to enter a new, fascinating world, to inhabit vicariously
another human being who at first seems so unlike us and yet at heart
is like us, to live in a fictional reality that illuminates our daily
reality. We do not wish to escape life but to find life, to use our
minds in fresh, experimental ways, to flex our emotions, to enjoy,
to learn, to add depth to our days.
- Story is about thoroughness, not shortcuts.
- To retreat behind the notion that the audience simply wants to dump
its troubles at the door and escape reality is a cowardly abandonment
of the artist’s responsibility. Story isn’t a flight from reality
but a vehicle that carries us on our search for reality, our best effort
to make sense out of the anarchy of existence.
- The idea of story is like the idea of music. We’ve heard tunes all
our lives. We can dance and sing along. We think we understand music
until we try to compose it and what comes out of the piano scares the
- But when the conscious mind is put to work on the objective task of
executing the craft, the spontaneous surfaces. Mastery of craft frees
- You write, you read; create, critique; impulse, logic; right brain,
left brain; re-imagine, rewrite. And the quality of your rewriting,
the possibility of perfection, depends on a command of the craft that
guides you to correct imperfection. An artist is never at the mercy
of the whims of impulse; he willfully exercises his craft to create
harmonies of instinct and idea.
- What happens is fact, not truth. Truth is what we think about what
- Likewise, writers of spectacle must realize that abstractions are
neutral. By abstractions I mean strategies of graphic design, visual
effects, color saturation, sound perspective, editing rhythm, and the
like. These have no meaning in and of themselves. The identical editing
pattern applied to six different scenes results in six distinctively
different interpretations. The aesthetics of film are the means to
express the living content of story, but must never become an end in
- The material of literary talent is words; the material of story talent
is life itself.
- STRUCTURE is a selection of events from the characters’ life stories
that is composed into a strategic sequence to arouse specific emotions
and to express a specific view of life.
- chutz·pah (also chutz·pa or hutz·pah or hutz·pa) n. INFORMAL
shameless audacity; impudence. late 19th cent.: Yiddish, from Aramaic
- This final condition, this end change, must be absolute and
- To PLOT means to navigate through the dangerous terrain of story and
when confronted by a dozen branching possibilities to choose the correct
path. Plot is the writer’s choice of events and their design in time.
- CLASSICAL DESIGN means a story built around an active protagonist who
struggles against primarily external forces of antagonism to pursue
his or her desire, through continuous time, within a consistent and
causally connected fictional reality, to a closed ending of absolute,
- Story is a metaphor for life. It takes us beyond the factual to the
essential. Therefore, it’s a mistake to apply a one-for-one standard
from reality to story.
- Americans are escapees from prisons of stagnant culture and rigid
class who crave change. We change and change again, trying to find what,
if anything, works. After weaving the trillion-dollar safety net of the
Great Society, we’re now shredding it. The Old World, on the other hand,
has learned through centuries of hard experience to fear such change,
that social transformations inevitably bring war, famine, chaos.
- The cause of this worldwide epidemic is simple and clear; the source
of all clichés can be traced to one thing and one thing alone: The
writer does not know the world of his story.
- A story’s SETTING is four-dimensional – Period, Duration, Location,
Level of Conflict.
- The world of a story must be small enough that the mind of a single
artist can surround the fictional universe it creates and come to know
it in the same depth and detail that God knows the one He created.
- The function of STRUCTURE is to provide progressively building
pressures that force characters into more and more difficult dilemmas
where they must make more and more difficult risk-taking choices and
actions, gradually revealing their true natures, even down to the
unconscious self. The function of CHARACTER is to bring to the story
the qualities of characterization necessary to convincingly act out
choices. Put simply, a character must be credible: young enough or
old enough, strong or weak, worldly or naive, educated or ignorant,
generous or selfish, witty or dull, in the right proportions. Each must
bring to the story the combination of qualities that allows an audience
to believe that the character could and would do what he does.
- The source of all art is the human psyche’s primal, prelinguistic need
for the resolution of stress and discord through beauty and harmony,
for the use of creativity to revive a life deadened by routine, for a
link to reality through our instinctive, sensory feel for the truth.
- Life on its own, without art to shape it, leaves you in confusion
and chaos, but aesthetic emotion harmonizes what you know with what
you feel to give you a heightened awareness and a sureness of your
place in reality. In short, a story well told gives you the very thing
you cannot get from life: meaningful emotional experience. In life,
experiences become meaningful with reflection in time. In art, they
are meaningful now, at the instant they happen.
- STORYTELLING is the creative demonstration of truth.
- The Controlling Idea is the purest form of a story’s meaning, the
how and why of change, the vision of life the audience members carry
away into their lives.
- Beautiful story design is a combination of the subject found, the
imagination at work, and the mind loosely but wisely executing the